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Universal History

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THE NATURE OF TRADE DEVELOPMENT IN THE NALCHIK DISTRICT IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX BEGINNING OF XX CENTURIES
T.A. Dzughanov

The article explores the main points related to the development of trade and business of Kabarda in the second half of the XIX–early XX centuries. An attempt is made to determine the nature and the vector of their development, in the conditions of the post-reform period. It is established that the development of capitalist relations was hampered by the lack of an established transport infrastructure, and remoteness from large industrial and commercial centers of Russia. It is noted that it receives the
status of settlements, with all the consequences that result from this. The market is gradually drawing into its orbit not only the Russian settlers, but also the mountaineers, who are actively adopting new forms of economic management, increasing the marketability of their products. The Kabardian economy is beginning to rebuild and is increasingly being built into market relations. It is concluded that in Kabarda in the late XIX–early XX centuries various economic types of economy are beginning to be formed, and market orientation of agricultural production is growing. The specialization of agriculture expanded the trade and economic exchange between the regions of the North Caucasus, which positively affected the dynamics of the transformation of the traditional economic order of the mountaineers. The process of transformation of the subsistence economy into a commodity one can be clearly seen in the increase in the activity of the commercial and entrepreneurial activity of the local population.
Keywords: Russia; Kabarda; Nalchik district; Kabardian economy; agriculture; agriculture; trade relations; marketability; market.

Contacts: E-mail: dzughanov@mail.ru

Pp. 66-72.

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