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Universal History

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THE RETREAT IN THE NALCHIK DISTRICT AT THE TURN OF THE XIX–XX CENTURIES
T.A. Dzughanov

The article examines the main points related to the development of the waste movement in Kabarda in the late XIX–early XX centuries. An attempt is made to determine the nature and vector of its development in the post-reform period and the evolution of market relations. It is established that migratory waste - as a socio-economic phenomenon arises in Kabarda, long before the fateful reforms of the XIX century. Its history is documented throughout the XVII–XVIII centuries. Initially, it gets spread only among the master gunsmiths. It is noted that the departure to other places was caused by the search for higher earnings, the competition of local craftsmen and the lack of a sufficient market for their products. The conclusion is made about the transformation of the phenomenon. If originally, seasonal work became widespread mainly among Kabardian artisans and artisans and was of a seasonal nature, then with the beginning of the twentieth century. most prevalent is the waste of unskilled workers. The process itself, as a socioeconomic phenomenon, becomes noticeably more complicated with time. Its development occurs in two main directions. The first is localized within the boundaries of the North Caucasus. The second is seasonal labor migration outside the Caucasus. Waste workers were sent to industrial areas of the central provinces of the country, where there was a steady demand for unskilled and low-paid labor of workers.
Keywords: Russia, Kabarda, Nalchik district, migrant workers, artel, artisans, trade, marketability, market.


DOI: 10.25791/vseist.02.2019.708

Contacts: E-mail: dzughanov@mail.ru

Pp. 42-48.

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